Asthma in Australia 2008 Header
Table of Contents | Chapter 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  | Appendix 1 2 | References |


 A | B | C | D | EF | G | HIJ | KL | M | NO | PQ | R | S | T | UV | WXYZ

A                                                          [back to top] 

Abbott T 2006. New steps to improve Indigenous health in far north. Minister for Health and Ageing, media release, 26 July 2006. Canberra: Australian Government.

Abramson MJ 2005. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in older people with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medical Journal of Australia 183:S23–5.

Abramson MJ, Bailey MJ, Couper FJ, Driver JS, Drummer OH, Forbes AB et al. 2001. Are asthma medications and management related to deaths from asthma? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 163:12–8.

ABS & AIHW (Australian Bureau of Statistics & Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2008. The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. AIHW cat. no. IHW 21; ABS cat. no. 4704.0. Canberra: AIHW.

ABS 1999. Standards for social, labour and demographic variables. Cultural diversity variables. Country of birth of father. ABS cat. no. 1289.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2001. ABS views on remoteness. ABS cat. no. 1244.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2002. National health survey: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander results, Australia, 2001. ABS cat. no. 4715.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2003. Multiple cause of death analysis, 1997–2001. ABS cat. no. 3319.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2004. Experimental estimates and projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 1991 to 2009. ABS cat. no. 3238.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2005. The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. ABS cat. no. 4704.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2006a. 2004–05 National Health Survey: users’ guide. ABS cat. no. 4363.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2006b. Information paper: National Health Survey–confidentialised unit record files Australia 2004–05. ABS cat. no. 4324.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2006c. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (2004–05), expanded CURF, RADL. Findings based on use of ABS CURF data.

ABS 2006d. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey Australia 2004–05. ABS cat. no. 4715.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2006e. Information paper: an introduction to the Socio-economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), 2006. ABS cat. no. 2039.0. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2008. Causes of death, Australia, 2006. ABS cat. no. 3303.0. Canberra: ABS.

Abulhosn RS, Morray BH, Llewellyn CE & Redding GJ 1997. Passive smoke exposure impairs recovery after hospitalization for acute asthma. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 151:135–9.

ACAM (Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring) 2003. Asthma in Australia 2003. AIHW asthma series 1. Cat. no. ACM 1. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).

ACAM 2005. Asthma in Australia 2005. AIHW asthma series 2. Cat. no. ACM 6. Available at <>. Canberra: AIHW.

ACAM 2006. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among older people in Australia: deaths and hospitalisations. Cat. no. ACM 7. Available at <>. Canberra: AIHW.

ACAM 2007a. Asthma in Australia: findings from the 2004–05 National Health Survey. Cat. no. ACM 10. Canberra: AIHW.

ACAM 2007b. Survey questions for monitoring national asthma indicators. Cat. no. ACM 9. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 9 May 2007, <>.

ACAM 2008. Statistical methods for monitoring asthma. Cat. no. ACM 13. Canberra: AIHW.

Adams K & Briggs V 2005. Galnya angin (good air) partnerships in Indigenous tobacco control. Melbourne: Excellence in Indigenous Tobacco Control.

Adams N, Bestall J & Jones P 2003. Budesonide for chronic asthma in children and adults (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 4. Chichester, United Kingdom (UK): John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Adams N, Bestall J & Jones P 2004a. Inhaled beclomethasone versus placebo for chronic asthma (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Adams N, Bestall J & Jones P 2005. Inhaled fluticasone propionate for chronic asthma (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Adams RJ, Smith BJ & Ruffin RE 2000. Factors associated with hospital admissions and repeat emergency department visits for adults with asthma. Thorax 55:566–73.

Adams RJ, Wilson DH, Taylor AW, Daly A, Tursan d’Espaignet E, Dal Grande E et al. 2004b. Psychological factors and asthma quality of life: a population based study. Thorax 59:930–5.

Adams RJ, Wilson DH, Taylor AW, Daly A, Tursan d’Espaignet E, Dal Grande E et al. 2006. Coexistent chronic conditions and asthma quality of life: a population-based study. Chest 129:285–91.

Ahmad O, Boschi-Pinto C, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Lozano R & Inoue M 2001. Age standardization of rates: a new WHO standard. Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy (GPE) Discussion Paper no. 31. Geneva: World Health Organization.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2000. National Health Priority Area indicators for monitoring asthma. Report of a consultation workshop. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2006. Health expenditure Australia, 2004–05. Cat. no. HWE 35. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2007a. Australian hospital statistics 2005–06. Health services series no. 30. Cat. no. HSE 50. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2007b. GRIM (General Record of Incidence in Mortality) books. Available at <>. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2007c. Health expenditure Australia 2005–06. Cat. no. HWE 37. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2008a. Australia’s health 2008. Cat. no. AUS 99. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2008b. Australian hospital statistics 2006–07. Cat. no. HSE 55. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2008c. Diabetes: Australian facts 2008. Cat. no. CVD 40. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2008d. Health system expenditure on disease and injury in Australia, 2004–05. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2008e. Occupational asthma in Australia. Bulletin no. 59. Cat. no. AUS 101. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Baker DF, Marks GB, Poulos LM & Williamson M 2004. Review of proposed National Health Priority Area asthma indicators and data sources. Cat. no. ACM 2. Available at <>. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Begg S, Vos T, Barker B, Stevenson CS, L & Lopez A 2007. The burden of disease and injury in Australia, 2003. Cat. no. PHE 82. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Britt H & Miller GC 2007. Patient-based substudies from BEACH: abstracts and research tools 1999–2006. General practice series no. 20. Cat. no. GEP 20. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Britt H, Miller GC, Charles J, Bayram C, Pan Y, Henderson J et al. 2008. General practice activity in Australia 2006–07. General practice series no. 21. Cat. no. GEP 21. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Britt H, Miller GC, Charles J, Pan Y, Valenti L, Henderson J et al. 2007. General practice activity in Australia 2005–06. General practice series no. 19. Cat. no. GEP 19. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Britt H, Miller GC, Knox S, Charles J, Valenti L, Henderson J et al. 2001. General practice activity in Australia, 2000–2001. General practice series no. 8. Cat. no. GEP 8. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Britt H, Miller GC, Knox S, Charles J, Valenti L, Henderson J et al. 2002. General practice activity in Australia 2001–02. General practice series no. 10. Cat. no. GEP 10. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Britt H, Miller GC, Knox S, Charles J, Valenti L, Pan Y et al. 2004. General practice activity in Australia 2003–04. General practice series no. 16. Cat. no. GEP 16. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Knox S, Britt H, Pan Y, Miller G, Bayram C, Valenti L et al. 2005. Locality matters: the influence of geography on general practice activity in Australia 1998–2004. AIHW cat. no. GEP 17. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW: Mathers C, Vos T & Stevenson C 1999. The burden of disease and injury in Australia. Cat. no. PHE 17. Canberra: AIHW.

Alati R, Mamun AA, O’Callaghan M, Najman JM & Williams GM 2006. In utero and postnatal maternal smoking and asthma in adolescence. Epidemiology 17:138–44.

Anderson RN & Rosenberg HM 1998. Age standardization of death rates: implementation of the year 200 standard. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol. 47, no. 3. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics.

Apter AJ, Reisine ST, Affleck G, Barrows E & ZuWallack RL 1998. Adherence with twice-daily dosing of inhaled steroids: socioeconomic and health-belief differences. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 157:1810–17.

Asher MI, Montefort S, Bjorksten B, Lai CKW, Strachan DP, Weiland SK et al. 2006. Worldwide trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. Lancet 368:733–43.

AHMAC (Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council) 2006. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework report 2006. Canberra: AHMAC.

Avery J, Dal Grande E, Taylor A & Gill T 2004. Which South Australians experience psychological distress? Kessler psychological distress 10-item scale. Adelaide: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS), Population Research and Outcomes Studies, Department of Health, Government of South Australia.

B                                                          [back to top] 

Babin SM, Burkom HS, Holtry RS, Tabernero NR, Stokes LD, Davies-Cole JO et al. 2007. Pediatric patient asthma-related emergency department visits and admissions in Washington, DC, from 2001–2004, and associations with air quality, socio-economic status and age group. Environmental Health 6:9–19.

Bateman ED, Boushey HA, Bousquet J, Busse WW, Clark TJH, Pauwels RA et al. 2004. Can guideline-defined asthma control be achieved? - The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170:836–44.

Bisgaard H & Szefler S 2006. Long-acting ß2 agonists and paediatric asthma. Lancet 367:286–8.

Bolisetty S, Wheaton G & Chang AB 2005. Respiratory syncytial virus infection and immunoprophylaxis for selected high-risk children in Central Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health 13:265–70.

Bosworth HB, Dudley T, Olsen MK, Voils CI, Powers B, Goldstein MK et al. 2006. Racial differences in blood pressure control: potential explanatory factors. American Journal of Medicine 119:e9–15.

Burney P, Chinn S, Jarvis D, Luczynska C & Lai E 1996. Variations in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, self-reported asthma attacks, and use of asthma medication in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). European Respiratory Journal 9:687–95.

C                                                          [back to top] 

Castro M, Schechtman KB, Halstead J & Bloomberg G 2001. Risk factors for asthma morbidity and mortality in a large metropolitan city. Journal of Asthma 38:625–35.

Castro M, Zimmermann NA, Crocker S, Bradley J, Leven C & Schechtman KB 2003. Asthma intervention program prevents readmissions in high healthcare users. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 168:1098–9.

Cates C 1999. Holding chambers versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2.

Centre for Epidemiology and Research 2006. 2005 report on adult health from the New South Wales Population Health Survey. Sydney: NSW Department of Health.

Centre for Epidemiology and Research 2007. 2006 report on adult health from the New South Wales Population Health Survey. Sydney: NSW Department of Health.

Centre for Epidemiology and Research (NSW Department of Health) 2002. New South Wales Child Health Survey 2001. NSW Public Health Bulletin 13:34–6.

Centre for Epidemiology and Research (NSW Department of Health) 2003. New South Wales Adult Health Survey 2002. NSW Public Health Bulletin 14:73–6.

Centre for Epidemiology and Research (NSW Department of Health) 2004. New South Wales Adult Health Survey 2003. NSW Public Health Bulletin 15(S-4).

Chalmers GW, Macleod KJ, Little SA, Thomson LJ, McSharry CP & Thomson NC 2002. Influence of cigarette smoking on inhaled corticosteroid treatment in mild asthma. Thorax 57:226–30.

Chan A, Keane RJ & Robinson JS 2001. The contribution of maternal smoking to preterm birth, small for gestational age and low birthweight among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal births in South Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 174:389–93.

Chang AB, Grimwood K, Maguire G, King P, Morris P & Torzillo P 2008. Consensus: Management of bronchiectasis and chronic suppurative lung disease in Indigenous children and adults from rural and remote Australian communities. Medical Journal of Australia (in press).

Chang AB, Grimwood K, Mulholland K & Torzillo PJ 2002. Consensus statement: Bronchiectasis in indigenous children from remote Australian communities. Medical Journal of Australia 177:200–4.

Chang AB, Masel JP, Boyce NC & Torzillo PJ 2003a. Respiratory morbidity in children following alveolar lobar abnormalities in Central Australia. Medical Journal of Australia. 178:490–4.

Chang AB, Masel JP, Boyce NC, Wheaton G & Torzillo PJ 2003b. Non-CF bronchiectasis-clinical and HRCT evaluation. Pediatric Pulmonology 35:477–83.

Chang AB, Shannon C, O’Neil MC, Tiemann AM, Valery PC, Craig D et al. 2000. Asthma management in Indigenous children of a remote community using an Indigenous health model. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 36:249–51.

Chang AB, Taylor B, Masters IB, Laifoo Y & Brown ADH 2007. Involvement of Indigenous health workers for Indigenous adults and children with asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4.

Charles H, Good CB, Hanusa BH, Chang CC & Whittle J 2003a. Racial differences in adherence to cardiac medications. Journal of the National Medical Association 95:17–27.

Charles J, Valenti L & Britt H 2003b. GP visits by healthcare card holders. A secondary analysis of data from Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH), a national study of general practice activity in Australia. Australian Family Physician 32:85-8, 94.

Chilmonczyk BA, Salmun LM, Megathlin KN, Neveux LM, Palomaki GE, Knight GJ et al. 1993. Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and exacerbations of asthma in children. New England Journal of Medicine 328:1665–9.

Chinn S 2003. Obesity and asthma: evidence for and against a causal relation. Journal of Asthma 40:1–16.

Christakis DA, Mell L, Koepsell TD, Zimmerman FJ & Connell FA 2001. Association of lower continuity of care with greater risk of emergency department use and hospitalization in children. Pediatrics 103:524–9.

Comino EJ, Mitchell CA, Bauman A, Henry RL, Robertson CF, Abramson M et al. 1996. Asthma management in eastern Australia, 1990 and 1993. Medical Journal of Australia 164:403–6.

Cook DG & Strachan DP 1999. Health effects of passive smoking, 10: summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax 54:357–66.

Cote J, Bowie DM, Robichaud P, Parent J-G, Battisti L & Boulet LP 2001. Evaluation of two different educational interventions for adult patients consulting with acute asthma exacerbation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 163:1415–9.

Coughlan J, Wilson A & Gibson PG 1999. Evidence-based review of the Australian six step asthma management plan. Sydney: New South Wales Health Department.

Couzos S & Davis S 2005. Inequalities in Aboriginal health: access to the Asthma 3+ Visit Plan. Australian Family Physician 34:837–40.

Cowie RL, Underwood M, Revitt SG & Field SK 2001. Predicting emergency departmentutilization in adults with asthma: a cohort study. Journal of Asthma 38:179–84.

D                                                          [back to top] 

Dawson AP, Russell A & Caponi A 2003. Asthma project at Pika Wiya Health Service: identifying barriers and developing resources. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal 27:20–2.

de Marco R, Bugiani M, Cazzoletti L, Carosso A, Accordini S, Buriani O et al. 2003. The control of asthma in Italy: a multicentre descriptive study on young adults with doctor diagnosed current asthma. Allergy 58:221–8.

de Oliveria MA, Faresin SM, Bruno VF, Bittencourt ARd & Fernandes ALG 1999. Evaluation of an education programme for socially deprived asthma patients. European Respiratory Journal 14:908–14.

Dharmage SC, Matheson MC, Burgess JB, Mesaros D, Morrison S, Feather I et al. 2008. Tracking asthma symptoms and lung function from age 7 to 44 years: Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study. Respirology 13(Supplement 2):A35.

DIMIA (Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs) 2003. 2001 classification of countries into English proficiency groups. Statistical focus report no. C01.2.0. Canberra: DIMIA.

DoHA (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing) 2001. $48.4 million for better asthma care. 8 October 2001. Available at: <>. Canberra: Australian Government.

DoHA 2004. Australian statistics on medicines 2001–2002. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

DoHA 2006. About the PBS. Canberra: DoHA. Updated version, viewed 5 September 2008, <>.

DoHA 2007a. Asthma Cycle of Care. Canberra: DoHA. Updated asthma webpage, viewed 5 September 2008, <>.

DoHA 2007b. Australian statistics on medicines 2004–05. Canberra: DoHA.

Downs SH, Marks GB, Sporik R, Belousova EG, Car NG & Peat JK 2001. Continued increase in the prevalence of asthma and atopy. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 84(1):20–3.

Drummond M, O’Brien B, Stoddart G & Torrance G 1997. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

EF                                                          [back to top] 

Eades SJ & Read AW 1999. Infant care practices in a metropolitan Aboriginal population Bibbulung Gnarneep Team. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 35:541–4.

Eagar K, Gordon R & Hodkinson A, Green J, Eagar L, Erven J et al. 1997. The Australian National Sub-acute and Non-acute Patient Classification(AN-SNAP): casemix classification study. Wollongong: Centre for Health Service Development, University of Wollongong.

Eder W, Ege MJ & Von Mutius E 2006. The asthma epidemic. New England Journal of Medicine 355:2226–35.

Eley R & Gorman D 2008. Music therapy to manage asthma. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal 32:9–10.

Enarson DA & Ait Khaled N 1999. Cultural barriers to asthma management. Pediatric Pulmonology 28:297–300.

ENFUMOSA (European Network for Understanding Mechanisms of Severe Asthma) Study Group 2003. The ENFUMOSA cross-sectional European multicentre study of the clinical phenotype of chronic severe asthma. European Respiratory Journal 22:470–7.

Evans D, Levison MJ, Feldman CH, Clark NM, Wasilewski Y & Levin B 1987. The impact of passive smoking on emergency room visits of urban children with asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease 135:567–72.

Fernandes AK, Mallmann F, Steinhorst AMP, Nogueira FL, Avila EM, Saucedo DZ et al. 2003. Characteristics of acute asthma patients attended frequently compared with those attended only occasionally in an emergency department. Journal of Asthma 40:683–90.

Fielder H, Lyons RA, Heaven M, Morgan H, Govier P & Hooper M 1999. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on peak flow variability. Archives of Disease in Childhood 80:253–6.

Fleiss J 1981. Statistical methods for rates and proportions, 2nd edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Forbes L, Harvey S, Newson R, Jarvis D, Luczynska C, Price J et al. 2007. Risk factors for accident and emergency (A&E) attendance for asthma in inner city children. Thorax 62:855–60.

Ford JG, Meyer IH, Sternfels P, Findley SE, McLean DE, Fagan JK et al. 2001. Patterns and predictors of asthma-related emergency department use in Harlem. Chest 120:1129–35.

Frischer T, Kuhr J, Meinert R, Karmaus W & Urbanek R 1993. Influence of maternal smoking on variability of peak expiratory flow rate in school children. Chest 104:1133–7.

G                                                          [back to top] 

Gibson PG, Mitchell CA, Bauman A, Henry RL, Comino E, Robertson C et al. 2000. Asthma morbidity and management among adults in Australia, 1998. Respirology 5:A27.

Gibson PG, Powell H, Coughlan J, Wilson AJ, Abramson M, Haywood P et al. 2004. Self-management education and regular practitioner review for adults with asthma [update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001117; PMID: 10796600]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews:CD001117.

GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) 2006. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Viewed 15 November 2006, <>.

Glasgow NJ, Goodchild EA, Yates R & Ponsonby A-L 2003. Respiratory health in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Australian Capital Territory. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 39:534–9.

Glasgow NJ, Ponsonby A-L, Yates RE, McDonald T & Attewell R 2001. Asthma screening as part of a routine school health assessment in the Australian Capital Territory. Medical Journal of Australia 174:384–8.

Goeman D, Aroni R, Sawyer S, Stewart K, Thien F, Abramson M et al. 2004. Back for more: a qualitative study of emergency department reattendance for asthma. Medical Journal of Australia 180:113–7.

Goldney RD, Ruffin R, Fisher LJ & Wilson DH 2003. Asthma symptoms associated with depression and lower quality of life: a population survey. Medical Journal of Australia 178:437–41.

Gopalakrishnan N, Hurwitz B & Sheikh A 2005. Ethnic variations in incidence of asthma episodes in England and Wales: national study of 502,482 patients in primary care. Respiratory Research 6:120–5.

Grant E, Lyttle C & Weiss K 2000. The relation of socioeconomic factors and racial/ethnic differences in US asthma mortality. American Journal of Public Health 90:1923–5.

Green RM, Custovic A, Sanderson G, Hunter J, Johnston SL & Woodcock A 2002. Synergism between allergens and viruses and risk of hospital admission with asthma: case-control study. British Medical Journal 324:1–5.

Greening A, Ind P, Northfield M, Shaw G & on behalf of Allen & Hanbury’s Ltd Study Group 1994. Added salmeterol versus higher-dose corticosteroid in asthma patients with symptoms on existing inhaled corticosteroid. Lancet 344:219–24.

Griffin P, Nadebaum C & Edgecombe G 2006. School Entrant Health Questionnaire: Longitudinal analysis 1998 to 2004 report to Department of Human Services. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Guerra S, Wright AL, Morgan WJ, Sherrill DL, Holberg CJ & Martinez FD 2004. Persistence of asthma symptoms during adolescence: role of obesity and age at the onset of puberty. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 170:78–85.

Guite HF & Burney PGJ 1996. Accuracy of recording of deaths from asthma in the UK: the false negative rate. Thorax 51:924–8.

Gurkan F, Ece A, Haspolat K, Derman O & Bosnak M 2000. Predictors for multiple hospital admissions in children with asthma. Canadian Respiratory Journal 7:163–6.

HIJ                                                          [back to top] 

Hannaford-Turner KM, Johnson AR, Yates DH, Sim MR, Elder D & Abramson M 2007. The Surveillance of Australian Workplace-Based Respiratory Events (SABRE) Scheme. Respirology 12:A220.

Herjavecz I, Nagy GB, Gyurkovits K, Magyar P, Dobos K, Nagy L et al. 2003. Cost, Morbidity, and Control of Asthma in Hungary: The Hunair Study. Journal of Asthma 40:673–81.

Hunt LW, Silverstein MD, Reed CE, O’Connell EJ, O'Fallon WM & Yunginger JW 1993. Accuracy of the death certificate in a population-based study of asthmatic patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:1994–5.

Hynd A, Roughead L, Preen D, Glover J, Bulsara M & Semmens JB 2008. Increased patient co-payments and changes in PBS-subsidised medicines dispensed in Western Australia (abstract). Presented at the National Medicines Symposium, May 2008, Canberra.

ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) 1998. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. [comment]. Lancet 351:1225–32.

James AL, Palmer LJ, Kicic E, Maxwell PS, Lagan SE, Ryan GF et al. 2005. Decline in lung function in the Busselton health study: the effects of asthma and cigarette smoking. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 171:109–14.

Johnson A, Toelle BG, Yates D, Belousova E, Ng K, Corbett S et al. 2006. Occupational asthma in New South Wales (NSW): a population-based study. Occupational Medicine 56:258–62.

Johnson AR, Dimich-Ward H, Manfreda J, Becklake MR, Ernst P, Sears M et al. 2000. Occupational asthma in adults in six Canadian communities. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 162:2058–62.

Johnston NW, Johnston SL, Duncan JM, Greene JM, Kebadze T, Keith PK et al. 2005. The September epidemic of asthma exacerbations in children: a search for etiology. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 115:132–8.

Johnston S, Pattemore P, Sanderson G, Smith G, Campbell M & Josephs L 1996. The relationship between upper respiratory infections and hospital admissions for asthma: a time-trend analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 154:654–60.

Johnston SL, Pattemore PK, Sanderson G, Smith S, Lampe F & Josephs L 1995. Community study of the role of viral infections in exacerbations of asthma in 9–11 year old children. British Medical Journal 310:1225–8.

Jones A, Bentham G & Horwell C 1999. Health service accessibility and deaths from asthma. International Journal of Epidemiology 28:101–5.

Jones AP 1994. Asymptomatic bronchial hyperreactivity and the development of asthma and other respiratory tract illnesses in children. Thorax 49:757–61.

Jorgensen IM, Bulow S, Jensen VB, Dahm TL, Prahl P & Juel K 2000. Asthma mortality in Danish children and young adults, 1973–1994: epidemiology and validity of death certificates. European Respiratory Journal 15:844–8.

KL                                                          [back to top] 

Karjalainen A, Kurppa K, Virtanen S, Keskinen H & Nordman H 2000. Incidence of occupational asthma by occupation and industry in Finland. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 37:451–8.

Kennedy S, Stone A & Rachelefsky G 2003. Factors associated with emergency department use in asthma: acute care interventions improving chronic disease outcomes. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 90:45–50.

Kenny P, Lancsar E, Hall J, King M & Chaplin M 2005. The individual and health sector costs of asthma: the first year of a longitudinal study in New South Wales. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 29:429–35.

Khan MSR, O’Meara M & Henry RL 2003. Background severity of asthma in children discharged from the emergency department. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 39:432–5.

Krueger KP, Armstrong EP & Langley PC 2001. The accuracy of asthma and respiratory disease diagnostic codes in a managed care medical claims database. Disease Management 4:155–61.

Landau LI 2001. Parental smoking: asthma and wheezing illnesses in infants and children. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 2:202–6.

Larsson ML, Frisk M, Hallstrom J, Kiviloog J & Lundback B 2001. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood is associated with increased prevalence of asthma in adults. Chest 120:711–17.

Lavoie KL, Bacon SL, Barone S, Cartier A, Ditto B & Labrecque M 2006. What is worse for asthma control and quality of life: depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, or both? Chest 130:1039–47.

Leung R 1996. Asthma and migration. Respirology 1:123–6.

Leung R, Carlin JB, Burdon JGW & Czarny D 1994. Asthma, allergy and atopy in Asian immigrants in Melbourne. Medical Journal of Australia 161:418–25.

Lincoln D, Morgan G, Sheppeard V, Jalaludin B, Corbett S & Beard J 2006. Childhood asthma and return to school in Sydney, Australia. Public Health 120:854–62.

Lotvall J 2002. The long and short of b2-agonists. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 15:497–501.

Lynd LD, Sandford AJ, Kelly EM, Pare PD, Bai TR, Fitzgerald M et al. 2004. Reconcilable differences: a cross-sectional study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and the magnitude of short-acting beta-agonist use in asthma. Chest 126:1161–8.

M                                                          [back to top] 

Marks G, Abramson MJ, Jenkins CR, Kenny P, Mellis CM, Ruffin RE et al. 2007. Asthma management and outcomes in Australia: a nation-wide telephone interview survey. Respirology 12:212–9.

Marks GB & Burney P 1997. Diseases of the respiratory system. In: Charlton J & Murphy M (eds). The health of adult Britain, volume 2. London: The Stationery Office, 93–113.

Martinez FD, Cline M & Burrows B 1992. Increased incidence of asthma in children of smoking mothers. Pediatrics 89:21–6.

Mielck A, Reitmeir P & Wjst M 1996. Severity of childhood asthma by socioeconomic status. International Journal of Epidemiology 25:388–93.

Murray AB & Morrison BJ 1989. Passive smoking by asthmatics: its greater effect on boys than on girls and on older than on younger children. Pediatrics 84:451–9.

Murray AB & Morrison BJ 1993. The decrease in severity of asthma in children of parents who smoke since the parents have been exposing them to less cigarette smoke. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 91:102–10.

Murray CJ & Lopez AD 1994. Quantifying disability: data, methods and results. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 72:481–94.

NO                                                          [back to top] 

NAC (National Asthma Council Australia Ltd) 2006. Asthma management handbook 2006. South Melbourne: NAC. Viewed 15 November 2006, <>.

NAC 2002. Asthma management handbook 2002. Melbourne: NAC.

NAEPP (National Asthma Education and Prevention Program) 1997. Expert panel report 2: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NIH Publication no. 97–4051.

National Centre for Classification in Health 2004. Australian refined diagnosis related groups version 5.1. Canberra: Australian Department of Health and Ageing.

Ng D, Salvio F & Hicks G 2004. Anti-leukotriene agents compared to inhaled corticosteroids in the management of recurrent and/or chronic asthma in adults and children. [update of Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews. 2002(3):CD002314; PMID: 12137655]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2.

NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) 1997. The health effects of passive smoking: a scientific information paper. Canberra: NHMRC.

NHPAC (National Health Priority Action Council) 2006a. National chronic disease strategy. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.

NHPAC 2006b. National Service Improvement Framework for Asthma. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.

Nicholson PJ, Cullinan P, Newman Taylor AJ, Burge PS & Boyle C 2005. Evidence based guidelines for the prevention, identification, and management of occupational asthma. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62:290–9.

NSW Health Department 1997. Asthma and the environment: perspectives on the prevention of asthma. Sydney: NSW Health Department.

O’Byrne PM, Bisgaard H, Godard PP, Pistolesi M, Palmqvist M, Zhu Y et al. 2005. Budesonide/formoterol combination therapy as both maintenance and reliever medication in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 171:129–36.

Oddoze C, Dubus JC, Badier M, Thirion X, Pauli AM, Pastor J et al. 1999. Urinary cotinine and exposure to parental smoking in a population of children with asthma. Clinical Chemistry 45:505–9.

Oldenburg B, McGuffog ID & Turrell G 2000. Socioeconomic determinants of health in Australia: policy responses and intervention options. Medical Journal of Australia 172:489–92.

Osborne ML, Vollmer WM & Buist AS 1992. Diagnostic accuracy of asthma within a health maintenance organisation. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 45:403–11.

Oxfam Australia 2007. Close the gap. Solutions to the Indigenous health crisis facing Australia. A policy briefing paper from the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation and Oxfam Australia. Fitzroy: Oxfam Australia.

PQ                                                          [back to top] 

Parameswaran K, Belda J & Sears MR 1999. Use of peak flow variability and methacholine responsiveness in predicting changes from pre–test diagnosis of asthma. European Respiratory Journal 14:1358–62.

Partridge MR 2000. In what way may race, ethnicity or culture influence asthma outcomes? Thorax 55:175–6.

Pattenden S, Antova T, Neuberger M, Nikiforov B, De Sario M, Grize L et al. 2006. Parental smoking and children’s respiratory health: independent effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure. Tobacco Control 15:294–301.

Pearce N, Aït-Khaled N, Beasley R, Mallol J, Keil U, Mitchell E et al. 2007. Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC). Thorax 62:757–65.

Peat JK 1994. The rising trend in allergic illness: which environmental factors are important? Clinical & Experimental Allergy 24:797–800.

Peat JK, van den Berg RH, Green WF, Mellis CM, Leeder SR & Woolcock AJ 1994. Changing prevalence of asthma in Australian children. British Medical Bulletin 308(6944):1591–6.

Peat JK, Britton WJ, Salome CJ, Woolcock A, Toelle BG, Martinez FD et al. 2001. Continuing the debate about measuring asthma in population studies. Thorax 56:406–11.

Pedersen B, Dahl R, Karlstrom R, Peterson CG & Venge P 1996. Eosinophil and neutrophil activity in asthma in a one-year trial with inhaled budesonide: the impact of smoking. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 153:1519–29.

Phelan P, Bishop J, Baxter K & Duckett SJ 1993. Hospitalisation of children under 15 years in Victoria. Australian Health Review 16:148–59.

Phelan P, Robertson CF & Olinsky A 2002. The Melbourne asthma study: 1964–1999. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 109:189–94.

Phillips CB, Toyne H, Ciszek K, Attewell RG & Klakovic M 2007. Trends in medication use for asthma in school-entry children in the Australian Capital Territory, 2000–2005. Medical Journal of Australia. 187:10–13.

Ponsonby A-L, Couper D, Dwyer T, Carmichael A & Wood-Baker R 1996. Exercise induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness and parental ISAAC questionnaire responses. European Respiratory Journal 9:1356–62.

Powell H & Gibson PG 2003. Inhaled corticosteroid doses in asthma: an evidence-based approach. Medical Journal of Australia 178:223–5.

Public Health Division 2001. Report on the 1997 and 1998 NSW health surveys. Sydney: New South Wales Health Department.

R                                                          [back to top] 

Rabe KF, Adachi M, Lai CKW, Soriano JB, Vermeire PA, Weiss KB et al. 2004. Worldwide severity and control of asthma in children and adults: the global Asthma Insights and Reality surveys. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 114:40–7.

Radeos MS, Leak LV, Lugo BP, Hanrahan JP, Clark S & Camargo CA 2001. Risk factors for lack of asthma self-management knowledge among ED patients not on inhaled steroids. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 19:253–8.

Reddel H, Ware SI, Marks G, Salome C, Jenkins C & Woolcock A 1999. Differences between asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control. Lancet 353:364–9.

Robertson CF, Heycock E, Bishop J, Nolan T, Olinsky A & Phelan PD 1991. Prevalence of asthma in Melbourne schoolchildren: changes over 26 years. British Medical Journal 302:1116–18.

Robertson CF, Roberts MF & Kappers JH 2004. Asthma prevalence in Melbourne schoolchildren: have we reached the peak? Medical Journal of Australia 180:273–6.

Ross K 1999. Occasional paper: population issues, Indigenous Australians 1996. ABS cat. no. 4708.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Rural and Regional Health and Aged Care Services Division 2004. Review of public health interventions for asthma. Available at: <>. Melbourne: Victorian Department of Human Services.

S                                                          [back to top] 

SAS Institute 2005. SAS for Windows Release 9. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.

Scott KM, Von Korff M, Ormel J, Zhang M-Y, Bruffaerts R, Alonso J et al. 2007. Mental disorders among adults with asthma: results from the World Mental Health Survey. General Hospital Psychiatry 29:123–33.

Sears MR, Rea HH, De Boer G, Beaglehole R, Gillies AJD, Holst PE et al. 1986. Accuracy of certification of deaths due to asthma. American Journal of Epidemiology 124:1004–11.

Sidenius KE, Munich EP, Madsen F, Lange P, Viskum K & Soes-Petersen U 2000. Accuracy of recorded asthma deaths in Denmark in a 12 month period in 1994–95. Respiratory Medicine 94:373–7.

Sin DD, Wells H, Svenson LW & Man SF 2002. Asthma and COPD among Aboriginals in Alberta, Canada. Chest 121:1841–6.

Siroux V, Pin I, Oryszczyn MP, Le Moual N & Kauffmann F 2000. Relationships of active smoking to asthma and asthma severity in the EGEA study: epidemiological study on the genetics and environment of asthma. European Respiratory Journal 15:470–7.

Skorge TD, Eagan TML, Eide GE, Gulsvik A & Bakke PS 2005. The adult incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms by passive smoking in utero or in childhood. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 172:61–6.

Smyth ET, Wright SC, Evans AE, Sinnamon DG & MacMahon J 1996. Death from airways obstruction: accuracy of certification in Northern Ireland. Thorax 51:293–7.

Soriano JB, Rabe KF & Vermeire PA 2003. Predictors of poor asthma control in European adults. Journal of Asthma 40:803–13.

Sorkness CA, Lemanske RF, Mauger DT, Boehmer SJ, Chinchilli VM, Martinez F et al. 2007. Long-term comparison of 3 controller regimens for mild–moderate persistent childhood asthma: The Pediatric Asthma Controller Trial. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 119:64–72.

Strachan DP & Cook DG 1997. Health effects of passive smoking. 1. Parental smoking and lower respiratory illness in infancy and early childhood. Thorax 52:905–14.

Strachan DP & Cook DG 1998. Health effects of passive smoking. 6. Parental smoking and childhood asthma: longitudinal and case-control studies. Thorax 53:204–12.

Suissa S, Ernst P, Benayoun S, Baltzan M & Cai B 2000. Low-dose inhaled corticosteroids and the prevention of death from asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 343(5):332–6.

Svanes C, Omenaas E, Jarvis D, Chinn S, Gulsvik A & Burney P 2004. Parental smoking in childhood and adult obstructive lung disease: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Thorax 59:295–302.

T                                                          [back to top] 

Toelle BG, Ng K, Belousova E, Salome CM, Peat JK & Marks GB 2004. Prevalence of asthma and allergy in schoolchildren in Belmont, Australia: three cross sectional surveys over 20 years. British Medical Journal 328:386–7.

UV                                                          [back to top] 

Valenti L, Charles J & Britt H 2005. Passive smoke in Australian homes: 1999 to 2004. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 29:387–8.

Valery PC, Chang AB, Masters IB, Stirling J, Laifoo Y & Twist A 2008. Stable prevalence of asthma symptoms in school-aged children in the Torres Strait region. Respirology 13:447–57.

Valery PC, Chang AB, Shibasaki S, Gibson O, Purdie DM, Shannon C et al. 2001. High prevalence of asthma in five remote Indigenous communities in Australia. European Respiratory Journal 17:1089–96.

Valery PC, Masters IB & Chang AB 2004. Snoring and its association with asthma in Indigenous children living in the Torres Strait and Northern Peninsula Area. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 40:461–5.

Victorian Department of Human Services 2007. Victorian Population Health Survey 2006. Melbourne: Rural and Regional Health and Aged Care Services, Victorian Government Department of Human Services.

Vollmer W, Markson L, O’Connor E, Sanocki L, Fitterman L & Berger M 1999. Association of asthma control with health care utilization and quality of life. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 160:1647–52.

Vollmer WM, Markson LE, O’Connor E, Frazier EA, Berger M & Buist AS 2002. Association of asthma control with health care utilization: a prospective evaluation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 165:195–9.

Vuillermin PJ, South M, Carlin JB, Biscan MI, Brennan SL & Robertson CF 2007. Asthma among school children in the Barwon region of Victoria. Medical Journal of Australia 187:221–4.

WXYZ                                                          [back to top] 

Wamala S, Merlo J, Bostrom G, Hogstedt C & Agren G 2007. Socioeconomic disadvantage and primary non-adherence with medication in Sweden. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 19:134–40.

Weiss K 1990. Seasonal trends in US asthma hospitalisations and mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association 263:2323–8.

Whitehall JS, Bolisetty S, Whitehall P, Francis F, Norton R & Patole SK 2001. High rate of Indigenous bronchiolitis and palivuzumab. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 37:416–7.

WHO (World Health Organization) Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology 2003. Guidelines for anatomical therapeutic chemical classification and defined daily dose assignment. Oslo: WHO. Viewed 29 March 2006, <>.

Wilson D, Chittleborough C, Ruffin R & Tucker G 2002. Comparison of rural and urban health status: asthma in South Australia as an example. In: Wilkinson D & Blue I (eds). The new rural health. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 149–70.

Wilson DH, Adams RJ, Appleton SL, Hugo D, Wilkinson D, Hiller J et al. 2003. Prevalence of asthma and asthma action plans in South Australia: population surveys from 1990 to 2001. Medical Journal of Australia 178:483–5.

Wilson DH, Adams RJ, Tucker G, Appleton S, Taylor AW & Ruffin RE 2006. Trends in asthma prevalence and population changes in South Australia, 1990–2003. Medical Journal of Australia 184:226–9.

Woods R, Walters H, Wharton C, Watson N & Abramson M 2001. The rising prevalence of asthma in young Melbourne adults is associated with improvement in treatment. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 87:117–23.

Woolcock A, Rubinfeld A, Seale JP, Landau L, Antic R, Mitchell C et al. 1989. Asthma management plan, 1989. Medical Journal of Australia 151:650–3.

Young S, Arnott J, O’Keeffe PT, Le Souef PN & Landau LI 2000. The association between early life lung function and wheezing during the first 2 years of life. European Respiratory Journal 15:151–7.

Zhao Y & Dempsey K 2006. Causes of inequality in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory, 1981–2000: a decomposition analysis. Medical Journal of Australia 184:490–4.

Zock J-P, Plana E, Jarvis D, Anto JM, Kromhout H, Kennedy SM et al. 2007. The use of household cleaning sprays and adult asthma: an international longitudinal study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 176:735–41.

Zubrick SR, Lawrence DM, Silburn SR, Blair E, Milroy H, Wilkes T et al. 2004. The Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey: the health of Aboriginal children and young people. Perth: Telethon Institute for Child HealthResearch.

Zwar NA, Comino EJ, Hasan I & Harris MF 2005. General practitioner views on barriers and facilitators to implementation of the Asthma 3+ Visit Plan. Medical Journal of Australia 183:64–7.

<< Glossary       [ back to top ]      List of Tables >>

 Printing options: This page can be directly printed from your Web Browser. Alternatively, print a high quality PDF version which includes all text, figures and tables from this Appendix using free Adobe software.

© Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2008

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be directed to the Head, Media and Publishing, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, GPO Box 570, Canberra ACT 2601.